Fully-Actuated UAVs: Control, Analysis and Applications

Fully-Actuated UAVs: Control, Analysis and Applications

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Fully-Actuated UAVs: Control, Analysis and Applications

The introduction of fully-actuated multirotors has opened the door to new possibilities and more efficient solutions to many real-world applications. However, their integration had been slower than expected, partly due to the need for new tools to take full advantage of these robots. In our research we aim to come up with innovative ideas to accelerate the integration of these new flying robots into the real world and push the boundaries of technology to develop new applications that have previously deemed impossible.

As far as we know, all the groups currently working on the fully-actuated multirotors develop new full-pose (6-D) tools and methods to use their robots, which is inefficient, time-consuming, and requires many resources. As the first step towards our goal, we have proposed methods that extend the existing flight controllers to support the new fully-actuated robots and bridge the gap between the tools already available for underactuated robots and the new fully-actuated vehicles. We have introduced attitude strategies that work with the underactuated planners, controllers, tools, and remote control interfaces, all while allowing taking advantage of the full actuation. Moreover, new methods have been proposed to properly handle the limited lateral thrust suffered by many fully-actuated UAV designs. The strategies are lightweight, simple, and allow rapid integration of the available tools with these new vehicles for the fast development of new real-world applications. The following video is from the paper submitted to ICRA 2021 (under review) that shows the general idea of the new controller design.

The methods have been tested on the enhanced PX4 firmware with our fully-actuated fixed-pitch hexarotor. The source code is provided for other researchers (see below).

Furthermore, we have been analyzing the properties and abilities of the fully-actuated multirotors and their controllers. For this purpose we have implemented a new simulator that can be used to improve the architectural designs, implement new control ideas and determine the extent that each design and controller can be used for differen tasks. The following video shows the simulator for a motion/force control task of drawing on the wall.

The source code for the simulator will be shared in the coming months.


In summer 2020, the AirLab held an online summer shcool. In the control and modeling section we used the basic version of our simulator for hands-on exercises. The session includes a quick overview of control and modeling for people who are already familiar with UAVs but have never learned the UAV control. It further extends into fully-actuated robots and also includes exercises on the fixed-tilt fully-actuated robots. You can access the source code, the recorded presentation and the slides from here.

Source Code

The source code for the PX4 autopilot modified to work with fully-actuated robots and enhanced with our thrust and attitude strategies can be found here. Note that the code has been published with our ICRA 2021 paper (under review). For the correct citation, please see the Publications section below.


The general design for the proposed controller along with the sets of attitude and thrust strategies are described in the following publication (access on arXiv):


author={Azarakhsh Keipour and Mohammadreza Mousaei and Andrew Ashley and Sebastian Scherer},
booktitle={2021 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
title={Attitude and Thrust Strategies for Fully-Actuated Multirotors: The Fast-Track to Real-World Applications}, 
year={in press},

IEEE Style:

A. Keipour, M. Mousaei, A. Ashley, and S. Scherer, “Attitude and Thrust Strategies for Fully-Actuated Multirotors: The Fast-Track to Real-World Applications,” 2021 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Under review. 


Azarakhsh Keipour - (keipour [at] cmu [dot] edu)

Sebastian Scherer - (basti [at] cmu [dot] edu)


This work was supported through NASA Grant Number 80NSSC19C010401.